|1x 3Kn (Gen)||King and his knights|
|2x 3Kn||Aragonese or Castillian knights (including Knights of the Military Orders).|
|2x 2LH||Ginetes or Muslim horse (Granadine regulars or Adalides border scouts)|
|1x 3Kn//4Bd or 4Lb or 2LH||French/Gascon men-at-Arms, longbowmen or more Ginetes. The longbowmen are presumably English (which could make the dismountable Knights English as well), although the DBM list provides for English Longbowmen with the Portugese (IV/68b) army only.|
|1x 4Sp||Hermandad spearmen|
|2x 3Ax||Javelinmen, Aragonese Almughavers and/or Muslim Mudegars.|
|1x 4Cb||Hermandad crossbowmen or regulars of the military orders|
|2x 2Ps||Slingers, javelinmen (inc.
Muslim Mudegars) and/or Hermandad
handgunners after 1390 AD.
The usual medieval bright multi-coloured clothes would be in order. Remember even the poorest peasant was likely to wear colourful clothing during this period. The only notably Spanish trait was a fondness for red. At the start of the period covered by this list the Spanish arms and equipment would have given them a distinctive appearance. Some of the distinctly Spanish themes would have remained throughout. The following should give a basic idea of what the various types should look like.
|Santiago||White habit until early 15c then black has red espada*|
|Calatrava||White habit until the end of 14c then grey or black with red fleury cross**|
|Alcantara||White habit green fleury cross until end of 14c then civvies|
|Avis||White habit green fleury cross|
|Sao Thiago||White habit red espada*|
|Montesa||White habit black cross until 1400 there after red|
|Knights of Christ||White habit red cross with white twist in middle|
*An Espada is a device shaped like a sword with fleur-de-lis at the end of the crosspieces and as a pommel Sao Thiago also add a fleur-de-lis at the tip of the sword.
**A Fleury cross is a cross with arms of an equal length that terminate in fleur-de-lis.
In DBA terms, the Medieval Spanish are a high aggression, arable army. The typical Spanish tactic was a head-on charge of the Knights, supported by Ginetes on the flanks, and often preceded by a hail of missiles. Spanish knights dismounted only when faced by fortifications.
Historically the Spanish drew their armies up in three ranks. The first according to Ian Heath (Armies of the Middle Ages Vol 1, WRG) was made up of infantry, however with the exception of the Portuguese who were influenced by their English allies this doesn't seem to be the case. After reading several descriptions of battles I would say the front rank was made up of knights, although one account does mention slingers as well. The second rank was itself split into three parts, a centre and two wings. The centre would be knights including the army's commander. The wings would be made up of crossbow men and/or Ginetes. The third rank would be made up of the remaining infantry.
Turning now to the tactics individual parts of the army. The Knight's main tactic was to charge straight at the enemy however unlike his contemporary's in the rest of Europe if this failed the Spanish knights would start to skirmish with the enemy instead. Perhaps Spanish knights should be classed as Cavalry rather than knights in DBA?
The tactics of the Ginetes were what you would expect from light cavalry, hover round the flanks trying to get behind their opponents, pick off any stragglers, etc. They were also useful for pinning down enemy infantry.
Crossbowmen seem to have been used to soften up the enemy before the second rank charged in.
Slingers as pointed out above are mentioned as being in the front rank on at least one occasion but no mention was made of what they were doing. However, I would hazard a guess that they were covering the Knight's advance and/or providing supporting fire.
As for the other infantry they are ignored by all the sources I have seen and their position indicates they were playing a supporting role. Sir Charles Oman's description of the infantry at the battle of Navarette may give an indication of the infantry's role "Little confidence was evidently placed in them and they did no more than had been expected of them when they fled from the field."
Turning this into a DBA deployment I would suggest putting two elements of knights in your front rank supported by slingers if you wish. The second rank centre should be any remaining Knights including your general flanked by crossbow men who are in turn flanked by Ginetes. Note the crossbow men and Ginetes could be slightly ahead of the knights. The third rank is made up of the left-overs.
Under English influence the Portuguese deployment would be somewhat different their front rank should be a mixture of dismounted knights and archers including any longbow men they have. They will fight defensively in the English manner.
Typical medieval camp subjects are appropriate such as baggage wagons and medieval pavillions. The Spanish Inquisition (which began in 1481 AD) also provides inspiration for those racking their brains for camp ideas.
Essex has a specific range of 15mm horse and foot for Medieval Spanish (Mid99-Mid112), as well as for the earlier Ed Cid period. Old Glory's Spanish Normans are better suited for Navarre, but can be put to service. Mudejars and other Muslim foot can also be found in various makers Conquest/Islamic ranges.
Darren Buxbaum's Medieval Spanish
Matts Elzinga has created these paper flags for the Iberian Religious Orders.
There are several helpful Osprey references. David Nicolle's El Cid & Reconquista 1050-1492 provides a brief overview of the entire period with color plates by Angus McBride. Osprey's Campaign Series on Granada 1492: The Twilight of Moorish Spain post-cedes the Medieval Spanish list, but includes useful information on the history leading up to the finale of the Reconquista. Terrence Wise's Knights of Christ features the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights as might be expected, but gives some mention to the Spanish religious orders.
Thanks to Steven Montague for the original essay, which has been updated for DBA 2.2 by adding pictures, an updated list of troop types, ideas on camps and miniatures, and other resources.
Last Updated: 26 Oct. 2004
Questions, comments, suggestions welcome.
Send them to Chris Brantley, IamFanaticus@gmail.com.