Norman warriors arrived in Apulia in the first years of the XI century. They fought as mercenaries during a communal revolt against the Byzantine rule in Bari. The rebels were defeated and the Normans offered their services to various Italian Duchies.
In 1030 AD, they received the county of Aversa as a reward for the support given to the Duke of Naples. After the establishment of this first Italian Norman Duchy, many more Norman warriors reached Italy. The twelve sons of Tancred of Hauteville left Normandy to fight against the Sicilian Arabs during a Byzantine campaign led by George Maniaces (1038 AD). When the general was recalled and imprisoned, two of the sons of Tancred, William "of the iron arm" and Drogo, took advantage of the weakness of Byzantium and conquered the Apulian county of Melphi (1041-1043 AD).
In 1053 AD, the Normans defeated Pope Leo IX at Civitate. That was the beginning of a fruitful alliance between the sons of Tancred and the successors of St. Peter. In thirty years the Normans, led by Robert the Guiscard, conquered all Southern Italy. The last city to fall was Salerno in 1075 AD. The Normans left to the Pope the control of the city of Benevento.
Roger, the twelfth and last of the sons of Tancred, led the Norman conquest of Sicily, that was completed in 1091 AD.
This five players campaign begins in 1043 AD. The situation is the following:
I decided not to include Gaeta, Naples and Amalfi in the campaign since they did not take part in the fights of the following years.
E1----E3-----A2----A1 | / / \ | | / / \ | | / | \ | | / | \ | E2 | A3 . . | | . . | | . . | B2 . . | / | . . | / | . ...Z-- B1 | . .| \ \ | . . | \ \ | . . | \---B3 . . \ | . . \------\ | D3... .......C2 | \ . / | | \ . / | | \ . / | | \ . / | D1....D2.....C3....C1 Key: --- Land Route ... Sea Route
|Map Key||Latin/Arab Name||Italian Name||Controlled By|
Civitate was destroyed in the XV century, so you will not find it on a modern map. San Paolo di Civitate is a small village near the ruins of Civitate. The town of San Severo is 20 km south-east of Civitate and can be found on most maps of Apulia.
|Baratta-Fraccaro, "Atlante storico - Medio Evo" - De Agostini, 1952|
|Comba, "Il Medioevo" - Loescher, 1978|
|Finocchi-Corbella, "Puglia" - Touring Club Italiano, 1978|
|Gibbon, "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Chapter LVI, 1788|
|Muratori, "Annali d'Italia dal principio dell'era volgare sino all'Anno 1749", 1744-1749|
|Ostrogorsky, "Storia dell'impero bizantino" - Einaudi, 1968|
|"Map of Italy in the 11th Century" - Muir's Historical Atlas, 1911|
Optionally, the alliance between the Pope and the Sicilian Arab can be forbidden.
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Last Updated: July 16, 1999
My thanks to Marco Ponzi for preparing this campaign scenario. Comments, suggestions and input are welcome. Send your feedback to Chris Brantley, IamFanaticus@gmail.com.